Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 11:03 AM

h. News Item (berita)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To inform readers, listeners, or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important (memberitakan kepada pembaca, pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan).

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):

· Newsworthy events: recounts the event in summary form (kejadian inti/menceritakan kejadian-kejadiannya dalam bentuk yang sangat singkat).

· Background events: elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstances (menjelaskan apa yang terjadi, siapa yang terlibat, dalam situasi bagaimana).

· Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and authorities expert on the event (komentar saksi kejadian, pendapat para ahli).

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features):

· Informasi singkat tertuang dalam headline

· Menggunakan action verbs

· Menggunakan saying verbs, example say, tell, etc.

· Menggunakan kata keterangan, example badly injured, the most beautiful bride in the world, etc.

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Town ‘Contaminated

Newsworthy event Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Background events Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. Source A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.


Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 11:02 AM

g. Narrative (naratif)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To amuse, entertain, and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways (Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata, khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis, yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian).

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):

· Orientation: sets the scene and introduces the participants (mengenalkan pengenalan tokoh, waktu, dan tempat).

· Evaluation: a stepping back to evaluate the plight.

· Complication: a crisis arises (pengembangan konflik).

· Resolution: the crisis is resolve, for better or for worse (penyelesaian konflik).

· Reorientation: optional (perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita).

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features):


· Nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang, hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita, example, stepsisters, housework, etc.

· Adjectives yang membentuk noun phrase, example, long black hair, two red apples, etc.

· Time connectives dan conjunctions untuk mengurutkan kejadian-kejadian, example, then, before that, soon, etc.

· Adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa, example here, in the mountain, happily ever after, etc.

· Action verbs dalam past tense; stayed, climbed, etc.

· Saying verbs yang menandai ucapan seperti: said, told, promised, etc.

· Thinking verbs yang menandai pikiran, persepsi atau perasaan tokoh dalam cerita, example thought, understood, felt, etc.

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Snow White

Once upon a time there lived a little girl named Snow White. She lived with her Aunt and Uncle because her parents were dead. One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have enough money to take Snow White. Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the woods. Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, “what is your name?” Snow White said, “My name is Snow White.” Doc, one of the dwarfs, said, “If you wish, you may live here with us.” Snow White said, “Oh could I? Thank you.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after.


Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 1:30 PM

f. Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatori)
1. Ciri Umum:
a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):
To persuade the reader or listener that something should be/shouldn’t be the case (Untuk membujuk, meyakinkan atau mempengaruhi pembaca atau pendengar bahwa sesuatu seharusnya/tdk seharusnya demikian).
b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):
· Thesis: announcement of issue concern (pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan)
· Arguments: reasons for concern, leading to recommendation (berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan, dan mengarah ke rekomendasi).
· Recommendation: statement of what ought or ought not to happen (pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya).
c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Feature):
· Terfokus ke pembicara / penulis yang mengangkat isu.
· Abstract nouns, example policy, government, etc.
· Technical verbs, example species of animals, etc.
· Relating verbs, example should be, doesn’t seem to have been, etc.
· Action verbs, example we must act, etc.
· Thinking verbs, example I believe, etc.
· Modal verbs, example we must preserve, etc.
· Modal adverbs, example certainly, surely, etc.
· Connectives, example firstly, secondly, etc.
· Simple present tense
· Kalimat pasif
· Bahasa evaluatif, misalnya important, valuable, trustworthy, etc.
2. Contoh Teks
In all the discussion over the removal of lead from petrol (and the atmosphere) there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the difference between driving in the city and in the country. While I realize my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive, I feel that when you travel through the country, where you only see another car every five to ten minutes, the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. Those who want to penalize older, leaded petrol vehicles and their owners don’t seem to appreciate that in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and one’s own vehicle is the only way to get about. I feel that country people, who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol, should be treated differently to the people who live in the city.


Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 11:00 AM

e. Explanation (penjelasan)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To explain the process involved in the formation or workings of natural or socio-cultural phenomena (menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam, dunia ilmiah, sosial-budaya, atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan).

b. Struktur Teks (generic structure):

· A general statement to position the reader (pernyataan umum untuk memposisikan pembaca).

· A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs (penjelasan yang berurutan tentang mengapa dan bagaimana sesuatu itu terjadi).

· Closing (penutup).

  1. Ciri Kebahasaan (languistic features):


· General and abstract nouns, misalnya word chopping, earthquakes

· Action verbs

· Simple present tense

· Passive voice

· Conjunctions of time and cause

· Noun phrase, example the large cloud

· Abstract nouns, example the temperature

· Adverbial phrases

· Complex sentences

· Bahasa teknis

· Kalimat pasif

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Making Paper from Woodchips

General statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. Process explanation (sequenced) Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper.


Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 10:59 AM

d. Discussion (pembahasan)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To present at least two points of views about an issue (mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang, sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi.

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):

· Issue: Statement (pernyataan) dan preview

· Arguments for and against or statement of differing points of view (Pendapat yang mendukung dan pendapat yang menolak atau pernyataan dari sudut pandang yang berbeda). Terdiri atas: point (gagasan pokok) dan elaboration (uraian). Bisa terdiri atas lebih dari satu point dan elaboration.

· Conclusion or recommendation (kesimpulan atau rekomendasi)

  1. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features):


· General nouns untuk menyatakan kategori, misalnya uniforms, alcohol, etc.

· Relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan, misalnya smoking is harmful, etc.

· Thinking verbs untuk mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis, misalnya feel, believe, hope, etc.

· Additives, contrastives dan causal connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen, misalnya similarly, on the hand, however, etc.

· Detailed noun groups untuk memberikan informasi secara padu, misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens, etc.

· Modalities, seperti perhaps, must, should, should have been, could be, etc.

· Adverbials of maner, misalnya deliberately, hopefully, etc.

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

I have been wondering if homework is necessary. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. But, many times, doing homework is not a great idea. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family.


Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 10:56 AM

c. Description (deskripsi)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To describe a particular person, place, or thing (Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang, benda atau tempat tertentu).

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):

· Identification: identifies phenomenon to be described (mengidentifikasi fenomena yang akan dideskripsikan).

· Description: describes parts, qualities, characteristics (mendeskripsikan bagian-bagian, kualitas, ciri-ciri subjek, perilaku umum, sifat-sifat).

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (linguistic features):

· Terfokus pada participant tertentu: example my house, my cat, the museum, etc.


· Simple present tense

· Detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, example It was a large open rowboat, a sweet young lady, etc.

· Berbagai macam adjectives, yang bersifat describing, numbering, classifying, example, two strong legs, sharp white fangs, etc.

· Relating verbs untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, example, My mum is realy cool, It has very thick fur, etc.

· Thinking verbs dan feeling verbs untuk mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis tentang subjek, example Police believe the suspect is armed, I think it is a clever animal, etc.

· Action verbs, example Our new puppy bites our shoes, etc.

· Abverbials untuk memberikan informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut, example fast, at the tree house, etc.

· Bahasa figurative, seperti simile, metafor, misalnya John is white as chalk, sat tight, etc.

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:


Identification Macquarie University is one of the largest universities in Australia. This year, in 2004, it celebrates its 40th anniversary. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt, Sydney, where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. In 1964, Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe, but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe, Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor, a grass amphitheatre, and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles, native plants and eucalypts. Today, a railway station is under construction. In three years1 time, Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway, yet retaining its beautiful site.


Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 10:54 AM

b. Anecdote (cerita lucu)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (communicative/social purpose):

The communicative purpose of the text is to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing accident (menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa nyata yang bertujuan menghibur).

b. Struktur Teks (generic structure):

· Abstract: signals the retelling of an unusual incidents (menandai atau menunjukkan penceritaan kembali kejadian yang tidak biasa).

· Pengenalan (Orientation): sets the scene (menunjukkan kejadian-kejadian).

· Krisis (crisis): provides details of the unusual incident (menjabarkan secara rinci kejadian yang tidak biasa tersebut)

· Tindakan (reaction): reaction to crises (reaksi atau tanggapan terhadap krisis).

· Koda (Coda): optional-reflection on or evaluation of the incident (refleksi atau evaluasi dari kejadian tersebut).

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Feature):


· Seruan/kata seru, pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! And do you know what? It’s awful, isn’t it? etc.

· Action verbs, example go, write, etc.

· Conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu, seperti then, afterwards, etc.

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Snake in the Bath

Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house, which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first, so we set to, and turned on the tap. Crisis Suddenly to my horror, a snake’s head appeared in the plug-hole. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath, spitting and hissing at us. Reaction For an instant I stood there quite paralyzed. Then I yelled for my husband, who luckily came running and killed the snake with the handle of a broom. Anna, who was only three at the time, was quite interested in the whole business. Indeed I had to pull her out of the way or she’d probably have leant over the bath to get a better look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly before running the bath water.

-he� : 5 �@� `�� st:l2 level1 lfo2'>· Action verbs, example She must save, etc.

· Thinking verbs, example Many people believe, etc.

· Modal verbs, example we must preserve, etc.

· Modal adverbs, example certainly, we, etc.

· Connectives, example firstly, secondly, etc.

· Bahasa evaluatif, example important, valuable, trustworthy, etc.

· Kalimat pasif (passive voice)

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Cars should be Banned in the City

Cars should be banned in the city. As we all know, cars create pollution, and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Firstly, cars, as we all know, contribute to most of the pollution in the world. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis, lung cancer, and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. Secondly, the city is very busy. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city, which causes them to die. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in the city, you may find it hard to sleep at night, or concentrate on your homework, and especially talk to someone. In conclusion, cars should be banned from the city for the reasons listed.


Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 10:50 AM

Genre much deals with kinds of texts. It has communicative purpose/social function (tujuan komunikasi), generic structure/text organization (struktur teks), and linguistic features (ciri-ciri kebahasaan).

Berikut ini bentuk-bentuk genre dalam bahasa Inggris:

a. Analytical Exposition (eksposisi analitikal)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif (communicative purpose/social function):

The communicative purpose/social function of analytical exposition is to persuade the reader or listener that something is the case (untuk membujuk, meyakinkan atau mempengaruhi pembaca atau pendengar bahwa sesuatu memang seperti itu). Kadang juga dikatakan bahwa analytical exposition dimaksudkan untuk mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian.

b. Struktur Teks (generic structure):

· Pernyataan pendapat (Thesis)

1. Position: introduces topic and indicates writer’s position.

2. Preview: outlines the main argument to be presented.

· Argumen (arguments)

1. Point: restate main argument outlined in preview.

2. Elaboration: develops and supports each point/argument.

· Reiteration: restate writer’s position.

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (linguistic features):


· General nouns, example car, pollution, leaded petrol car, etc.

· Abstract nouns, example policy, government, etc.

· Technical verbs, example species of animals, etc.

· Relating verbs, example It is important, etc.

· Action verbs, example She must save, etc.

· Thinking verbs, example Many people believe, etc.

· Modal verbs, example we must preserve, etc.

· Modal adverbs, example certainly, we, etc.

· Connectives, example firstly, secondly, etc.

· Bahasa evaluatif, example important, valuable, trustworthy, etc.

· Kalimat pasif (passive voice)

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Cars should be Banned in the City

Cars should be banned in the city. As we all know, cars create pollution, and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Firstly, cars, as we all know, contribute to most of the pollution in the world. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis, lung cancer, and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. Secondly, the city is very busy. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city, which causes them to die. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in the city, you may find it hard to sleep at night, or concentrate on your homework, and especially talk to someone. In conclusion, cars should be banned from the city for the reasons listed.


Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 10:33 AM

By: Mary Shelley
A. Theme
The theme of this story is “human can’t live alone”. Because in this story the author describes the monster as a lonely person who needs a soul mate. According to our group, that so even a monster that has an ugly face and body still needs a friend to be his soul mate.
B. Plot
The plot of this story is flash back, in which at the beginning of the story Victor tells his problems to Robert Walton and then at the last back to Robert Walton again.
Victor Frankenstein showed his interest in science when he was hunting a rabbit with his father when he was a child. Then he decided to go to Ingolstadt to study more about science.
Raising action
When Frankenstein desired to make people life forever after his mother and his lovely dog died.
After his wife died killed by the monster, he decided that his life purposed to kill the monster.
Falling action
Captain Robert Walton rescued Frankenstein on the North Pole.
The monster came to pick Frankenstein up after Frankenstein’s death. Then, he told the captain that he wouldn’t be seen again.
C. Conflict
There were two kinds of conflict that happen in this story, internal and external conflicts:
Internal conflict (Victor against himself)
The struggle of Victor Frankenstein to repair the big mistake that he have done because of his big ambition.
External conflict (the monster against the community)
The community doesn’t want to accept the attendance of the monster.
D. Setting
Setting (time) : Eighteenth century
Setting (place) : Geneva, The Swiss Alps, Ingolstadt, The Northern ice pole.
In this story, the setting functions as the background because the setting doesn’t have significant effect to the story. The setting is just as the place and time background. If they changed, the story isn’t influenced.
E. Characters
Victor Frankenstein : The Swiss chemist who create the monster
- Major character : The story focused on Victor Frankenstein and his action. He appeared from the beginning to the end of the story.
- Round character : He faced many conflicts, like facing his mother and his lovely dog died in front of him, attempting to create a life to the old body, facing a dilemma whether he would create a female monster or not, etc.
- Dynamic character : He changed his mind that God’s can’t be changed.
• The Monster : The ugly creation of Frankenstein who searches for companionship and love throughout the story.
- Major character : The story also focused on the monster and his action. He appeared from the beginning to the end of the story.
- Round character : He possessed both good and bad traits. Actually he was a lovable person.
- Dynamic character : He was rejected from social life. Besides, he wanted a companionship after seeing a happy couple.
Captain Robert Walton
- Minor character : The story wasn’t focus on him.
- Flat character : His function was just be a listener of Frankenstein’s story.
- Static character : He was a listener from the beginning to the end.
William : Victor’s brother. The monster murders William to punish Victor and sets the stage for more tragedy and torment for Victor.
- Minor character : He just appeared only several times.
- Flat character : He didn’t have any conflict.
- Static character : There is no change in his character until he died in the middle of the story.
• Elizabeth : Adopted and loved by the Frankenstein family, and becomes Victor Frankenstein’s wife.
- Minor character : The story didn’t focus on her. Her appearance wasn’t until the end of the story because of her death.
- Flat character : She only focused on her problem that was her love with Victor Frankenstein.
- Static character : She still loves Frankenstein till her death.
• Justine Moritz : Frankenstein’s housemaid who was convicted and executed to kill William.
- Minor character : She wasn’t concerned by the story.
- Flat character : She only appeared in the story for seeking William.
- Static character : Her character just being an honest and royal housemaid. Not enough complex to round character.
• Henry : Victor’s friend.
- Minor character : He is just a friend of Victor.
- Flat character : No significant changes on his character, even though Victor didn’t his problems.
- Static character : His personality doesn’t change from the beginning till the end of the story.
• Mr. Waldman : The chemist professor.
- Minor character : The story doesn’t focus on his character.
- Flat character : At the beginning he supports Victor in science and experiment, but at last after he knows that the purpose of Victor is to create a human, he against Victor’s will.
- Static character : No significant event of the story that caused by him.
Caroline : Victor’s mother.
- Minor character : She just appears at the beginning of the story.
- Flat character : She just acts like any other mothers who love her children and her family.
- Static character : She still loves Victor and her family, and supports Victor’s ambition to go to the university till her death.
• Alphonse : Victor’s father.
- Minor character : The story doesn’t focus on his character.
- Round character : At the beginning he loves and supports Victor’s will, but after the death of some members of his family, he thinks that Victor is caused of all problems and the death.
- Static character : His character doesn’t cause significant changes in the story.
F. Point of view
This story use dramatic point of view because the author gives chance to the audience to conclude the story by themselves.

Implications for language policy

Creators of second language teaching policies must be sensitive to the local or indigenous languages not to make them seem inferior to the target language. English language teaching has become a phenomenon in Southeast Asia, especially in Taiwan. Most Taiwanese universities require an English placement test as an entry requirement (Information for Foreigners Retrieved May 24, 2007). Foreigners (non-native Taiwanese) which are native English speaking students however, do not need to take a similar Chinese proficiency test, thus forwarding the ideology that the knowledge of English is superior to the Chinese counterpart and that to succeed in a globalize economy; one must be able to speak English (Hu 2005). Such a reality shows that our world has entered the age of globalization of the English language, in which most observers see a tendency toward homogeneity of values and norms; others see an opportunity to rescue local identities (Stromquist & Monkman 2000, p 7). The implications for language policy makers are that policies must be formed which not only include but celebrate local languages. Policies must not degrade other languages by placing them on a level of lower importance. Policies should incorporate the learner’s first language, the usage, and complexities as a means to create better linguistic comprehension as well as cultural understanding.

Policies for language teaching must encompass and include cultural values from the societies from which the languages are derived as well as being taught. In other words, when making policies regarding language teaching, one must consider the cultural ideologies of all and every student, the teacher, as well as the culture in which the target language is being taught. Language teaching policies formed with the cultural characteristics of both teacher and student in mind will not be prone to make assumptions about the appropriateness of students’ behavior based on the policy maker’s own cultural values (Englebert 2004) but will increase cultural awareness. The American Council on The Teaching of Foreign Languages has expounded on the importance of combining the teaching of culture into the language curriculum to enhance understanding and acceptance of differences between people, cultures and ideologies (Standards 1996).
One example where as policy makers did not recognize the importance of culture is outlined by Kim (2004), in which the Korean government had consulted American ESL instructional guidelines which stated that for students to become competent in English they must speak English outside of the classroom. The government on reviewing this policy requested that all Korean English language students use English outside of the classrooms to further enhance their language competency. What they failed to consider is that while in America, English is taught as a second language and speaking English was quite acceptable in all locations, that in Korea, English is taught as a foreign language and the vast majority of the Korean population do not converse with each other in English. Korean students speaking English outside of the classroom context were seen as show-offs. In a collectivistic culture, as is Korea, such displays of uniqueness are seen as a vice to be suppressed, not as a virtue (Kim 2004). Thus policy makers must not rely on the cultural views and policies of others, but incorporate the cultural views of the students as well as considering the culture where the teaching is taking place. Language teachers need to be informed about various teaching interaction-based methodologies, manipulate them and develop their own teaching methods compatible with the educational context to foster interaction between students (Kim 2004).

When creating policies, one must consider the cultural meanings of teaching materials used. The materials may have a far broader meaning or encompass far more (or less) than what one has considered. An example of this is when the school I worked for decided that I introduce a discussion topic on holidays with one of my classes. The school did not enlighten me as to the cultural significance of holidays or what the Chinese equivalent of the word entails. This problem, as described by Yule (1996), is that people have pre-existing schemata or knowledge structure in their memory of what constitutes certain ideas; e.g. an apartment, a holiday, what are breakfast items. The culturally based schemata that the students had for holidays were considerably different than that of my own. Their ideology of a holiday was any day that was special, possibly where one did not have to go to school, a weekend, a birthday, or any other major happening. When I asked the students what their favorite holiday was, I received many replies, all of which were not what I was looking for. I proceeded to tell them that Christmas was a holiday. This however, was a bad example as Christmas is not a holiday in Taiwan. In addition, I did not consider that a Chinese definition of the English word ‘holiday’ has a very broad meaning, thus the students were correctly answering my question however in their own cultural context.

Finally, as this paper has shown, language and culture are intertwined to such an extent whereas one cannot survive without the other. It is impossible for one to teach language without teaching culture. The implications for language teaching and policy making are therefore vast and far reaching. As a teacher of language, one must be culturally aware, considerate of the students’ culture, and inform students of cultural differences thus promoting understanding. Language policy must reflect both the target language culture as well as the students’, teacher’s, and administrative persons’ culture thus avoiding any cultural misinterpretations.

Implications for language teaching

Teachers must instruct their students on the cultural background of language usage. If one teaches language without teaching about the culture in which it operates, the students are learning empty or meaningless symbols or they may attach the incorrect meaning to what is being taught. The students, when using the learnt language, may use the language inappropriately or within the wrong cultural context, thus defeating the purpose of learning a language. Conflict in teaching styles also stem from the relationship between language and culture. During the past decade, I have taught English in Taiwan and have observed a major difficulty in English instruction brought about by teachers and suffered by students. Western English teachers who teach in Taiwan bring along with them any or all of their teaching and learning experiences. To gain employment in Taiwan as an English teacher (legally), one must have received a Bachelor’s degree (Information for foreigners), thus, all instructors of English in Taiwan have, to some degree, an experience of learning in a higher educational setting. From this, they bring with them what they imagine to be appropriate teaching methodology. What is not generally understood, even seldom noticed is that while Taiwanese classes are conducted in a Chinese way, that is in a teacher centered learning environment, the native English teacher’s instruction is focused on student centered learning (Pennycook 1994). Pennycook (1994) continues by pointing out that student centered learning is unsuitable for Chinese students. The students may not know how to react to this different style of learning. A case in point, when at the beginning of my teaching career in Taiwan, I found it very easy to teach English, but very difficult to get the students to interact with me while I was teaching. Teaching was very easy because the students were well behaved and very attentive. The difficulties surfaced when trying to get the students to interact with me, their teacher. At the time, I did not realize that in Taiwan, it was culturally unacceptable for students to interact with their teacher. The Taiwanese students were trained to listen to what the teacher said, memorize it, and later regurgitate it during an exam. I was forced to change my method of teaching so that I was recognized as a “friend” rather than a teacher. The classroom setting had to be changed to a much less formal setting to coax out student interaction. As Murray (1982) pointed out, Chinese students will refuse to accept this “informal discussion” style of teaching. However, once the students were comfortable in their surroundings and didn’t associate it to a typical “Chinese” style class, they became uninhibited and freely conversed in English. The language classes taught using this style proved to be most beneficial to the students with an overall increase in the grade point average. Because language is so closely entwined with culture, language teachers entering a different culture must respect their cultural values. As Englebert (2004) describes: “…to teach a foreign language is also to teach a foreign culture, and it is important to be sensitive to the fact that our students, our colleges, our administrators, and, if we live abroad, our neighbours, do not share all of our cultural paradigms.” I have found teaching in Taiwan, the Chinese culture is not the one of individualism, as is mine, but focused on the family and its ties. The backwash from teaching using western culturally acceptable methods must be examined before proceeding as they may be inappropriate teaching methods, intentional or not, may cause the student embarrassment, or worse, to the entire students’ family. As Spence (1985) argues, success and failure in a Chinese cultural framework influences not just oneself but the whole family or group. Therefore, teachers must remember to respect the culture in which they are located. Language teachers must realize that their understanding of something is prone to interpretation. The meaning is bound in cultural context. One must not only explain the meaning of the language used, but the cultural context in which it is placed as well. Often meanings are lost because of cultural boundaries which do not allow such ideas to persist. As Porter (1987) argues, misunderstandings between language educators often evolve because of such differing cultural roots, ideologies, and cultural boundaries which limit expression. Language teachers must remember that people from different cultures learn things in different ways. For example, in China memorization is the most pronounced way to study a language which is very unlike western ideologies where the onus is placed on free speech as a tool for utilizing and remembering vocabulary and grammar sequences (Hui 2005). Prodromou (1988) argues that the way we teach reflects our attitudes to society in general and the individual’s place in society. When a teacher introduces language teaching materials, such as books or handouts, they must understand that these will be viewed differently by students depending on their cultural views (Maley 1986). For instance, westerners see books as only pages which contain facts that are open to interpretation. This view is very dissimilar to Chinese students who think that books are the personification of all wisdom, knowledge and truth (Maley 1986). One should not only compare, but contrast the cultural differences in language usage. Visualizing and understanding the differences between the two will enable the student to correctly judge the appropriate uses and causation of language idiosyncrasies. For instance, I have found, during my teaching in Taiwan, that it is necessary to contrast the different language usages, especially grammatical and idiom use in their cultural contexts for the students to fully understand why certain things in English are said. Most Taiwanese students learning English are first taught to say “Hello. How are you?” and “I am fine. Thank you, and you?” This is believed to be what one must say on the first and every occasion of meeting a westerner. If I asked a student “What’s new?” or “How is everything?” they would still answer “I am fine, thank you and you?” Students often asked me why westerners greet each other using different forms of speech which, when translated to Mandarin, didn’t make sense. This question was very difficult to answer, until I used an example based in Chinese culture to explain it to them. One example of this usage: In Chinese, one popular way to greet a person is to say (…phonetically using pinyin) “chr bao^ le ma?” This, loosely translated to English, would have an outcome similar to “Have you eaten?” or “Are you full?” This greeting was developed in ancient Chinese culture as there was a long history of famine. It was culturally (and possibly morally) significant to ask someone if they had eaten upon meeting. This showed care and consideration for those around you. Even now, people are more affluent but this piece of language remains constant and people still ask on meeting someone, if they have eaten. If someone in a western society was greeted with this, they would think you are crazy or that it is none of your business. The usage of cultural explanations for teaching languages has proved invaluable for my students’ understanding of the target language. It has enabled them to differentiate between appropriate and inappropriate circumstances of which to use English phrases and idioms that they have learnt. Valdes (1986) argues that not only similarities and contrasts in the native and target languages have been useful as teaching tools, but when the teacher understands cultural similarities and contrasts, and applies that knowledge to teaching practices, they too become advantageous learning tools.