Home Schooling on Eyes

Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 11:16 AM

Nowadays, home schooling has become even more popular as an alternative to regular schooling. Many parents, especially mothers, are now seriously considering this form of schooling for their children. Most children undergo home schooling do so because of many reasons. For example, a family whose breadwinner is always on the move may need to transfer homes on a regular basis. Proper education will never be achieved by the children because of the disruptions of their studies every time the family needs to move away. As a result, the family may consider home schooling as a great alternative. Just like regular schooling, home schooling has both its advantages and disadvantages.

Here are some advantages on home schooling:

(1) Our kids will learn things we want them to learn. We have control over the information and lessons our children will acquire from the lessons. Unlike regular schooling, we will be there to monitor what our kids are learning;

(2) No more cafeteria food, with our own kitchen serving as the school cafeteria, our kids will have access to healthier and more fulfilling food. They no longer have to endure oversaturated meat products and unhealthy consumables from the school cafeteria. Now, we can serve our children with whatever food they desire, a luxury compared to regular schooling. Think of it as another incentive why we should consider home schooling;

(3) Our kids will develop naturally, unlike regular schooling which allots only a limited period of time for children to learn, home schooling allows us as a mother and a teacher, to control the pace at which our child develops mentally and emotionally;

(4) There is no more need to force children to grow up at a hurried pace. With home schooling, our kids will discover their skills and inclinations on their own;

(5) No more pressure for our kids. With the absence of nerve-racking exams, our children will not feel pressured or forced to achieve or over-achieve. Because our children know that we accept their limitations and strengths, they can feel more confident about themselves and develop better personality traits. They will eventually learn how to set goals of their own and be systematic in dealing with pressure.

Those advantages that caused most of parents consider home schooling for their children, but some parents don’t want to consider this form of schooling for their children because of its disadvantages. They are:

(1) The lack of social interaction. With our children not immersed in social groups and activities, they can become shy when around other people. To prevent this from happening, we can contact other mothers and arrange for play-dates occasionally to help our kids learn and master their social skills. Remember that man is a social being and interacting with children of their own age is crucial for our children to develop into wonderful adults;

(2) A less-structured environment. Our kids may have difficulty adjusting to 9 to 5 work hours because of the laid-back environment in our home. Introducing a pre-determined timeframe and schedule will help us teach our children to make the most out of their time. Our kids will also learn to be more punctual and aware of theirs and other people's precious time;

(3) Discipline may become an issue. Unlike a regular class, our children may look at us simply as their mother and not a teacher. This can lead to a loss of discipline especially if we allow them to continue with their actions. A set of rules should be set in place with you explaining the importance of following rules. Make our children understand that we are also a teacher and that they need to treat as such. Instilling discipline in them is a very important factor in securing their future.

By these advantages and disadvantages, parents should be more aware of the good and bad sides of home schooling. Although it is not a perfect system, home schooling provides children with the opportunity to learn about the world they live in from the comfort of their homes. For parents, this type of educational system gives them the chance to develop special bonds with their kids. Both sides must be weighed and thorough consideration must be given to each and every advantage or disadvantage.


Chinese Learners and English Plural Forms

Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 11:56 AM

Liu Jing, Evie Tindall and Deanna Nisbet

Regent University, Virginia, U.S.A

In “Chinese Learners and English Plural Forms”, Liu Jing, Evie Tindall and Deanna Nisbet explore the challenges that Chinese students encounter in the formation of English plurals. Thus, they (a) examine linguistic features of Chinese and English that may affect plural formation in English, (b) highlight specific areas of challenge for Chinese learners, and (c) present an array of recommended instructional practices.

Liu Jing, Evie Tindall and Deanna Nisbe said that there two aspects of the Chinese language that are pertinent to the formation of English plurals, they are the ideographic writing system and the morphological and syntactic structure of the language. These aspects are markedly different from those of English. There are also some areas of challenge for Chinese learners, they are omission of the morpheme -s/-es, over-generalization of rules and count and non-count nouns. Regarding to these problems, many Chinese learners encounter challenges in regard to the formation of English plurals. Knowing this, teachers can anticipate difficulties and support students’ learning of English plural forms through various instructional practices such as teach key differences in forming plurals between Chinese and English; teach English rules for plural formation; teach the commonalities and the distinct differences between Chinese and English regarding count and non-count noun; teach students language learning strategies with an emphasis on learning vocabulary; and teach students to develop their own resources.

Liu Jing, Evie Tindall and Deanna Nisbe’s findings are supported by (Brown, 2000; Lightbown and Spada, 1999). They said that language transfer, or the incorporation of patterns from the native language into the target language, is a common source of errors among learners of a second or foreign language. They also add that prior knowledge of Chinese language patterns may notably affect their acquisition of English. I also agree with them because as I know that every language has its own rules in spoken or even in written forms. Moreover between Chinese and English, they have their own rules in forming the singular and the plural form of a certain word. As I have learned that English has many rules in word plural formation so that sometimes it is found that it is common for students to make error when they learn plural forms of English. Whereas in Chinese, context is a primary means of addressing the plural form. So that’s right that native language has a great influence in foreign language learning or target language learning.

In short, this article provides an overview of the linguistic features of Chinese and English that may affect formation of English plural forms and pinpoints three major sources of difficulty for many Chinese students. To address these highlighted areas, the authors have recommended a number of instructional practices. The primary focus of these practices is to develop independent language learners. Specifically, for teachers, it is suggested to use the foundational information and the five instructional practices presented in this article to equip Chinese learners to be strategic and resourceful as they address the challenges of English plural forms.

Derrick Nault

Kwansei Gakuin University, Japan

In a June 2006 critiquing standard approaches for teaching literature to English learners in Japanese university settings, Derrick Nault reports on his findings “Using World Literatures to Promote Intercultural Competence in Asian EFL Learners” which focuses on the specific technique to improve students’ English competence by using an intercultural approach-a new concept as an alternate pedagogical framework. He describes the concept by doing three specific techniques include in Culture Clashes, English Snapshots and Contrastive Analysis. This finding is fascinating and understandable to be applied.

Derrick Nault, in his study “Using World Literatures to Promote Intercultural Competence in Asian EFL Learners” describes three specific approaches as his technique in improving students’ abilities. The Culture Clashes as the first step of the technique is done by demonstrating a clash of cultural values or conceptions based on a scene from a story. For the following step- The English Snapshots, writer use passages from literary works to raise learners’ awareness of non-standard varieties of English. Referring to the last step-The Contrastive Analysis, learners involve comparing the cultural assumptions in a text and contrasting features of particular cultural. The writer believed that this last step is one of the best ways to draw attention to the importance of culture in the communication process.

Regarding to the four most common methods for teaching English-language literature in Japan-stylistics, literary criticism, the English language teaching (ELT) approach, and the yakudoku method (“translation method”), the intercultural approach seems to modification of the English language teaching (ELT) approach. Derrick Nault claims that no single method can be used in all contexts, “As teachers and students vary in learning styles, it is up to the instructor to decide what is most effective and practical for a given educational context. Hence, the weak points of standard approaches should be kept in mind and strive to involve students in their own learning, pique their interest in reading, raise their cultural awareness, and improve their language skills”. From his argument it is as if he was not satisfy with the effectiveness of the common method used in Japan but in my opinion Derrick Nault actually just want to find suitable method for his students although he must examine hardly with insufficient sources and references because this technique is still the new one.

Derrick Nault tells that while language teaching traditionally has treated language and culture separately, more recently ELT specialists have begun emphasizing that linguistic competence alone is insufficient for a learner to be truly proficient in a language. What is also needed, they argue, is an understanding of the culture in which the target language is used. But Seelye in (1997) said that “the study of language cannot be divorced from the study of culture, and vice versa. The wherewithal to function in another culture requires both prowess in the language and knowledge of the culture” (p. 23). Then Derrick Nault inform that an intercultural approach to ELT is advantageous in that it integrates both language and culture into lessons, more adequately preparing learners for real world communicative contexts. Responding to his argument, I assume that this approach is designed to be interesting and challenge method in which teacher and learners should be more active than usual because as my experience, learning with the real world context or condition will be more joyful and easy to understand the lesson. We can see how and when we use the language.

In the last discussion, Derrick Nault tells,” I have yet to gather concrete data on the effectiveness of the teaching techniques I have just outlined. Nonetheless, I would judge my intercultural competence-oriented literature lessons to be successful”. Besides, he has even had students express a desire to visit African and other Asian nations as a result of lessons based on world literatures. What all of this means for actual language acquisition is difficult to say, but an intercultural approach to ELT and literature does appear to intrigue and motivate learners and this can only help improve their English proficiency. It is also one of proof of intercultural effectiveness in literature class. Due to incomplete Derrick Nault’s concrete data, I wonder more about the effectiveness of intercultural approach. In short, I am interested in this new approach.

In conclusion, the intercultural approach which Derrick Nault recognized to improve students’ English competence seems to be good invention. The procedure of the technique is understandable enough. The reason that the research give in supporting his argument also logic but there is some suggestion for further research, it is better for the next research to provide detailed data and more supporting idea in order to make the reader more attract and fully understand with the procedure of the technique.

OPERATIONAL WORDS

Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 11:45 AM


No.

Subject

Kata Kerja Operasional

Contoh

1.

Reading

a. Read the text carefully and identify the words which have /ʊ/ or /u:/ sounds.

b. Match the sentences with the pictures.

c. Answer the questions based on the text.

d. Look at the pictures then read the expression aloud.

e. Read the dialogues and mind your pronunciation.

f. Study the picture then answer the questions.

g. State true (T) or false (F) based on the text.

h. Complete the word web using the information from the text.

i. Read the text and learn to deconstruct.

j. Read the announcement and answer the questions.

k. Read the text and decide the text type by identifying the structure of the text.

l. Answer the questions based on the pictures.

a. Read the text carefully and identify the words which have /ʊ/ or /u:/ sounds.

My name is Bayu. My full name is Bayu Wardana. I am 13 years old. I am a student. I live in Bandung. I study at SMP Pasundan. My hobbies are reading and playing football.

b. State true (T) or false (F) based on the text.

I live in a beautiful modern house. The house has three bedrooms. The bedrooms are upstairs. The living room, the kitchen, and the dining room are downstairs. My house has a balcony. The garden is full of flowers and trees. The color of the house is blue. There is a garage for our car. We like living here because it’s very nice.

1. It is a modern house.

2. There are three bedrooms.

3. The living room is upstairs.

4. The house doesn’t have a balcony.

5. My parents like to sit on the balcony.

6. There are lots of flowers.

7. The color of the house is white.

8. The gate is black.

2.

Speaking

a. Ask your friends to do something.

b. Practice the dialogue with a friend.

c. Telling the time.

d. Saying the colors.

e. Telling the days of the week and months of the year.

f. Answer the questions orally with your own words.

g. Repeat the dialogues after your teacher.

h. Read and practice the expressions.

i. Study the expressions and pay attention to the intonation.

j. Telling your friends a story in your own words.

k. Telling the ordinal numbers.

a. Practice the following dialogue with your friend.

Syifa greets Mr. Heri. He is her neighbor.

Syifa : Good morning, Mr. Heri.

Mr. Heri : Good morning, Syifa.

Syifa : How are you today, sir?

Mr. Heri : I am fine, thank you. And you, Syifa?

Syifa : I am fine, too. Thank you.

Mr. Heri : Well, glad to see you. Take care. Bye.

Syifa : Bye, Mr. Heri.

b. Telling the ordinal numbers.

1 : first 11 : eleventh

2 : second 15 : fifteenth

3 : third 18 : eighteenth

4 : fourth 20 : twentieth

5 : fifth 21 : twenty - first

6 : sixth 30 : thirtieth

7 : seventh 36 : thirty - sixth

8 : eight 42 : forty - second

9 : ninth 50 : fiftieth

10 : tenth 53 : fifty – third

3.

Writing

a. Sort the text into a good text.

b. Fill the crossword puzzle.

c. Complete the dialogues with the right expression.

d. Write down the missing words using the words in the box.

e. Write the comparatives of the adjectives.

f. Make questions by referring to the text.

g. Put the sentences into a good dialogue.

h. Write an email to one of your friends.

i. Make dialogues based on a certain situation.

j. Construct a monologue on how to make something.

k. Make a short description based on the pictures.

a. Sort the text into a good text.

This made Mrs. Bee angry because she had built the beehive all by herself and it belonged to her. While they were arguing, a hornet flew by. Mrs. Bee asked the hornet to be the judge.

While Mrs. Bee went about to build a beehive, Mr. Bee did not move an inch. Seeing this, “The beehive belongs to Mrs. Bee!”

A fair of bees lived in a large and cozy beehive. Mrs. Bee was always busy doing all kinds of work, but Mr. Bee did nothing at all.

One day, Mrs. Bee said to Mr. Bee, “My dear! I have been collecting honey from morning to noon. I am feeling very tired now. Why don’t you help?”

“Can’t you see I’m having a nap? If you continue to disturb me, I shall ask you to leave my beehive, “ replied Mr. Bee.

The hornet was very wise. “I order you to build a new beehive each. Your work will prove who had actually built this beehive,” said the hornet.

b. Write the comparatives of the adjectives.

Adjective

Comparative

Successful

Relaxing

Popular

Interesting

Important

Fashionable

expensive

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

4.

Listening

a. Listen and complete the dialogue.

b. Listen and fill in the blank spaces.

c. Listen and write the differences of what you hear and what you read.

d. Listen and circle the words you hear.

e. Listen and complete the song.

f. Listen and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).

g. Listen and identify the kinds of jobs you hear in the dialogue.

h. Listen to the words and classify each word into the table.

i. Listen to your teacher and do what he/she says.

a. Listen and complete the dialogue.

Deni : Hi, good morning. I’m Deni. What’s your name?

Dina : . . . . . , Deni. My name is Dina.

Deni : How are you today, Dina?

Dina : . . . . . fine, thanks. And you?

Deni : I’m . . . . . , thank you. Are you a new student?

Dina : Yes, I am.

Deni : Where do you come from?

Dina : . . . . . from Bandung.

Deni : Welcome to this school, Dina. Nice to meet you.

Dina : . . . . . , too.

Deni : OK, see you then. Goodbye.

Dina : . . . . . .

b. Listen and circle the sentences you hear.

1. (a). That’s a very small glass.

(b). That’s a very small class.

2. (a). I have a white coat.

(b). I have a white goat.

3. (a). What a pretty little curl.

(b). What a pretty little girl.

4. (a). There’s something in your back.

(b). There’s something in your bag.

5. (a). The shop sells clogs.

(b). The shop sells clocks.

Mental Grammar

Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 11:19 AM

Grammar and Psycholinguistics

a. How do speakers produce and understand sentences?

Linguists have long puzzled over what the main goal of linguistics should be. Is it to describe a language? Or, is it to describe what speakers know about a language? There is a distinction, one that has important implications for psycholinguists.

b. Linguistics as psychology

Bloomfield argued for the psychological validity of the descriptions they were writing. He held that what they wrote about was not only a description of language but it was also a description of what people had learned. However, Twaddell, rejected such a goal for linguistics. He considered the description of language, not the psychological aspects of people, to be his goal. Moreover, Chomsky’s staunchest linguistic critics are in accord on the goal of linguistics as involving the description of knowledge that people have about language.

2. Chomsky’s Competence and Performance Distinction

Chomsky uses the term competence to indicate a certain kind of language knowledge. Competence is the knowledge that people have of the grammar of their language and, as such, it is the goal of linguistics to describe this competence. In Chomsky’s view, psycholinguistics has two major goals: (1) to specify how people use competence so that they are able to produce and understand sentences; and (2) to specify how people acquire competence (grammatical knowledge).

For Chomsky, the activities involved in producing and understanding sentences are performance processes. A theory of performance should explain sentence production and sentence comprehension. The relationship of competence to performance for Chomsky, therefore, is that of part to whole, with competence being a part or component of the whole, which is performance. Competence is the knowledge that persons have of their grammar while performance involves knowledge for using competence so that the processes of sentence production and understanding can be realized.

3. Chomsky’s Grammatical Conceptions

In 1957, Chomsky demonstrated how such a system could be used to explain how speakers can, in principle, produce and understand an infinite number of grammatical sentences. He also maintained one fundamental notion, which is that the syntax of the grammar is primary, with meaning (and sound) being secondary. It can be said that the meaning of a sentence is specified as a function of its syntactic form, and not vice versa. Chomsky claims this relationship to be innate and universal.

a. The Standard Theory

The Standard Theory (ST) essentially consists of various sets of rules: syntactic, semantic, and phonological. Each set of rules is systematically integrated and serves to provide, for every sentence, a linguistic description or representation at four different levels. There is a sound level (Phonetic Interpretation) where the phonetic sound pattern of a sentence is represented; there is a meaning level (Semantic Interpretation) where the meaning and logical relations in a sentence are represented; and, there are two syntactic levels (Deep Structure and Surface Structure) where various syntactic aspects of a sentence are represented. Deep Structure represents the underlying syntactic form of the sentence while Surface Structure represents its more overt form.


Transformational Rules and Surface Structure

Surface Structure is the outcome of Transformational rules operating on the Deep Structure. Transformation rules - rules which delete, add, and move material – and which have been applied to the Deep Structure. Deep structures are transformed into Surface Structures by means of Transformation (T) rules.

Phonological Rules and Phonetic Interpretation

The function of Phonological rules is to change the Surface Structure into a Phonetic Interpretation, which is a sequence of wholly phonetic symbols that, in effect, represents the pronunciation of the sentence.

Semantic Rules and Semantic Interpretation

Returning to Chomsky’s ST grammar, it is the Semantic rules which take a Surface Structure as input, so as to provide the Semantic Interpretation of a sentence in something like its propositional form. In this regard, it is important to note that Deep Structure, despite its somewhat misleading ‘Deep’ name, does not represent the meaning of a sentence. It is Semantic Interpretation that provides that specification. Deep Structure is a syntactic representation.

b. The Government/Binding (GB) Theory of Grammar

One principal function of government, in Chomsky’s theory, is to ensure that a word is assigned the proper case. How the nouns in such a sentence are related to each other and whether they refer to the same entities or other expressions is the function of Binding Theory. The relationship between D-structure and S-structure is restricted in terms of what can be moved, where it can be moved from, where it can be moved to, and how far it can be moved (the distance is limited by Bounding Theory).

4. Linguistic Challenges to Chomsky’s Grammar

Challenges to Chomsky’s grammar have mainly stemmed from two sources; (1) disagreement with the organization of his grammar where syntax is given a primary role over semantics; and (2) disagreement with the adequacy of his structural characterization of such basic syntactic relations and constituents, particularly Subject, Direct Object, Indirect Object and Verb Phrase.

a. Meaning-based Grammars

Firstly, semantics is given the primary role. Syntax is given only a secondary role, which is to provide a realization of the semantic representation. Then there is only one type of syntactic rule, the Transformational; there are no Phrase Structure rules. Accordingly, there is only one level of syntactic representation, Surface Structure; there is no Deep or D-Structure.


Dissolution Language Loss

Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 11:17 AM

A. Neurolinguistics and Language Loss

a. The evidence from aphasia

Neurolinguistics, an offspring of psycholinguistics, investigates how the human brain creates and processes speech and language. Human brains have two separate and virtually identical cerebral hemispheres. Anatomically, there are millions of association pathways which connect the left and right hemispheres together so that in normal brains any information in either hemisphere is immediately shared with the other. The brain controls human speech and language without resorting an anatomy text or arranging to view a craniotomy. The location of the control of speech organs and the sensation of speech sounds is in the top part of the brain which controls the lower extremity of the body and vice versa. In an equally counterintuitive manner, the left side of the brain is responsible for the right side of the body and vice versa. It follows that the tops of the motor and sensory cortices take care of the movement and sensation of your feet, and the bottom parts of these two strips are responsible for your head. Language is represented for most people in the left hemisphere, the area of the brain which is crucial for the production and comprehension of human language. A neurologist, Paul Broca, a French physician, named these two locations, motor and sensory, as Broca’s area, who also helped coin the term aphasia, the loss of speech or language due to brain damage. Just behind this area, at the lower portion of the sensory cortex, is Wernicke’s area, named after Broca’s Austrian contemporary, Karl Wernicke.

There are many different types of aphasia, but the classic types are Broca’s aphasia and Wernicke’s aphasia. Broca’s aphasia is characterized by speech and writing which is slow, very hesitant, and in severe cases, completely inhibited. Whereas Wernicke’s aphasia is characterized by speech production and writing are pretty much intact, but because the sensory cortex is damaged, patients experience a great deal of trouble processing linguistic input. In both types and for most cases, aphasia occurs only if either of these two areas are damaged in the left hemisphere of the brain.

b. The surgical evidence

There are two kinds of surgical operation which have a particular bearing on questions of language dissolution. One of these procedures is hemispherectomy. This procedure used to be performed even on adults, but now it is fairly much restricted to children under the age of ten. There is dramatic difference between the effects of this operation on adults and young children when it comes to speech. When an adult undergoes a left hemispherectomy, he or she becomes completely aphasic. Conversely hemispherectomies performed on young children, quite amazingly, do not lead to loss of speech. The effects of neurological damage on linguistic performance are not strictly predictable from anatomical change. In this case, for example, age is a critical factor. The second surgical procedure which also has neurolinguistic relevance is the split-brain operation which was developed in the 1970s to help treat specific and rare cases of severe epilepsy. There are certain severe and singular forms of epilepsy which remain unaffected by pharmacological treatment, and split-brain surgery was developed to spare sufferers from the terrible trauma of major seizures.

Research into aphasia, and studies of hemispherectomy and split-brain patients, has given rise to two superficially contradictory claims about the manner in which the brain processes language. On the one hand, there is irrefutable evidence that for the vast majority of adults, the production and comprehension of speech is located in two closely situated but clearly distinct areas of the left hemisphere, Broca’s and Wernicke’s, and this localization of function is not fully completed until about ten years old. On the other hand, in contrast to these claims about the neurolinguistic primacy of the left hemisphere, research in all areas of language dissolution shows that human linguistic ability does not solely reside in these two relatively small areas on one side of the brain.

B. Speech and Language Disorder

a. Dissolution from non-damaged brain

Language dissolution is the result of operations on the brain. Individual language can deviate significantly from social norms, e.g., stuttering and autism. Stuttering (refers to stammering) is one of the most common articulation problems encountered by speech pathologists. Stuttering is not random: it does not punctuate our speaking spasmodically, like a hiccough. It occurs most frequently on the initial word of a clause; the first syllable of a word, the initial consonant of a syllable, and on stop consonants (like /p/, /t/, /k/). Johnson theory represents the extreme behavioral view and claims that stuttering originates from traumatic events occurring in early childhood when overly sensitive parents (who often themselves were childhood stutterers) and/or primary school teachers are to assiduous in attempting to ensure that the child speaks fluently. The same parent or teacher who criticizes a four-year-old for blurting out ‘P-p-p-please!’ is unlikely to comment on the child’s less than perfectly coordinated way of walking.

Another theory, the Orton/Travis theory, states that stammering is caused by the absence of unambiguous lateralization of speech to the left hemisphere. Neurologically explanation, this latter group of exceptional children often becomes stutters, largely because the brain lacks a fully established primary language center and is therefore indecisive about how to initiate speech. For many language disorders, the disability is not just in the mouth of the speaker but it is also framed by the ears of the listeners. Another disability that is fairly well-recognized though, fortunately, much less common, is autism. Its cause has long been disputed by opposing camps, who have argued for either behavioral or neurological origins, with the letter receiving the most recent support. An autistic infant exhibits a bizarre disregard for human interaction and, in contrast to a normal child, ignores eye and face contact. The autistic infant quickly lags behind in achieving the natural milestones of speech production and within a year or two, the significance of the disease becomes conspicuous. Autism is often referred to as childhood schizophrenia.

b. Language loss arising from inherited disorders

The genes which carry the human heritage of speech are countermanded by an inherited defect that is transported by the same genetic code. Down’s syndrome, a disorder that occurs about once in every 600 births and, along with marked anatomical abnormalities, leaves the child moderately to severely impaired in all cognitive functions. The enlargement of the tongue in Down’s syndrome creates poor articulation, and though comprehension is not significantly affected, expressive speech is hesitant and limited, in a manner reminiscent of Broca’s aphasia.

c. Language loss through aging

Though the humor expressed might diminish proportionally with the age of the recipient, it is true that a reduction physical and mental abilities often does accompany the aging process. Various afflictions, neurological, environment, or hereditary, mean that humans sometimes have the gift of language taken away from them prematurely naturally. The most conspicuous faculty eroded by the aging process is memory, and since language represents a major component of Long Term Memory (LTM). Since access to LTM is capacity limited, it is more logical to assume that the more you have to remember, the easier it is to forget. LTM improved slightly, but after the fifth decade, subject typically forgot one item for every successive decade of life. The memory constraints that may become evident as we get older seem to be due primarily to Short Term Memory (STM) constraints, or limitations on inputting and accessing the material to be recalled. We cannot measure aging directly by chronological years; geriatrics has long taught us that age is more directly a manifestation of health than of the calendar.

Alzheimer’s disease : Appear to involve both hereditary and environmental factors, the brain of an AD patient deteriorates prematurely, and this loss has profound and ultimately injurious effects on every aspects of AD has just begun, but the research which has been undertaken shows that speech and language are not affected in isolation. Linguistic function gradually disintegrates together with those of emotion, cognition and personality. Who wrote more complex composition (i.e. whso used more subordination in their sentences) seemed to have a much better chance of not succumbing to AD compared to those who used simpler sentences structures. Again, the evidence suggests that language is no different from other aspects of human behavior, the more complex the endeavor.

CULTURE AND CONFLICT (PART 7)

Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 11:45 AM

a) Identities and roles.

Identities and roles refer to conceptions of the self. Am I an individual unit, autonomous, a free agent, ultimately responsible for myself? Or am I first and foremost a member of a group, weighing choices and actions by how the group will perceive them and be affected by them? Those who see themselves as separate individuals likely come from societies anthropologists call individualist. Those for whom group allegiance is primary usually come from settings anthropologists call collectivist, or communitarian.

In collectivist settings, the following values tend to be privileged:

  • cooperation
  • filial piety (respect for and deference toward elders)
  • participation in shared progress
  • reputation of the group
  • interdependence

In individualist settings, the following values tend to be privileged:

  • competition
  • independence
  • individual achievement
  • personal growth and fulfillment
  • self-reliance

When individualist and communitarian starting points influence those on either side of a conflict, escalation may result. Individualists may see no problem with "no holds barred" confrontation, while communitarian counterparts shrink from bringing dishonor or face-loss to their group by behaving in unseemly ways. Individualists may expect to make agreements with communitarians, and may feel betrayed when the latter indicate that they have to take their understandings back to a larger public or group before they can come to closure. In the end, one should remember that, as with other patterns described, most people are not purely individualist or communitarian. Rather, people tend to have individualist or communitarian starting points, depending on one's upbringing, experience, and the context of the situation.

· Conclusion

There is no one-size-fits-all approach to conflict resolution, since culture is always a factor. Cultural fluency is therefore a core competency for those who intervene in conflicts or simply want to function more effectively in their own lives and situations. Cultural fluency involves recognizing and acting respectfully from the knowledge that communication, ways of naming, framing, and taming conflict, approaches to meaning-making, and identities and roles vary across cultures.