Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 11:03 AM

h. News Item (berita)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To inform readers, listeners, or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important (memberitakan kepada pembaca, pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan).

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):

· Newsworthy events: recounts the event in summary form (kejadian inti/menceritakan kejadian-kejadiannya dalam bentuk yang sangat singkat).

· Background events: elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstances (menjelaskan apa yang terjadi, siapa yang terlibat, dalam situasi bagaimana).

· Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and authorities expert on the event (komentar saksi kejadian, pendapat para ahli).

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features):

· Informasi singkat tertuang dalam headline

· Menggunakan action verbs

· Menggunakan saying verbs, example say, tell, etc.

· Menggunakan kata keterangan, example badly injured, the most beautiful bride in the world, etc.

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Town ‘Contaminated

Newsworthy event Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Background events Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. Source A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.


Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 11:02 AM

g. Narrative (naratif)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To amuse, entertain, and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways (Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata, khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis, yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian).

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):

· Orientation: sets the scene and introduces the participants (mengenalkan pengenalan tokoh, waktu, dan tempat).

· Evaluation: a stepping back to evaluate the plight.

· Complication: a crisis arises (pengembangan konflik).

· Resolution: the crisis is resolve, for better or for worse (penyelesaian konflik).

· Reorientation: optional (perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita).

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features):


· Nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang, hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita, example, stepsisters, housework, etc.

· Adjectives yang membentuk noun phrase, example, long black hair, two red apples, etc.

· Time connectives dan conjunctions untuk mengurutkan kejadian-kejadian, example, then, before that, soon, etc.

· Adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa, example here, in the mountain, happily ever after, etc.

· Action verbs dalam past tense; stayed, climbed, etc.

· Saying verbs yang menandai ucapan seperti: said, told, promised, etc.

· Thinking verbs yang menandai pikiran, persepsi atau perasaan tokoh dalam cerita, example thought, understood, felt, etc.

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Snow White

Once upon a time there lived a little girl named Snow White. She lived with her Aunt and Uncle because her parents were dead. One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have enough money to take Snow White. Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the woods. Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, “what is your name?” Snow White said, “My name is Snow White.” Doc, one of the dwarfs, said, “If you wish, you may live here with us.” Snow White said, “Oh could I? Thank you.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after.


Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 1:30 PM

f. Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatori)
1. Ciri Umum:
a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):
To persuade the reader or listener that something should be/shouldn’t be the case (Untuk membujuk, meyakinkan atau mempengaruhi pembaca atau pendengar bahwa sesuatu seharusnya/tdk seharusnya demikian).
b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):
· Thesis: announcement of issue concern (pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan)
· Arguments: reasons for concern, leading to recommendation (berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan, dan mengarah ke rekomendasi).
· Recommendation: statement of what ought or ought not to happen (pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya).
c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Feature):
· Terfokus ke pembicara / penulis yang mengangkat isu.
· Abstract nouns, example policy, government, etc.
· Technical verbs, example species of animals, etc.
· Relating verbs, example should be, doesn’t seem to have been, etc.
· Action verbs, example we must act, etc.
· Thinking verbs, example I believe, etc.
· Modal verbs, example we must preserve, etc.
· Modal adverbs, example certainly, surely, etc.
· Connectives, example firstly, secondly, etc.
· Simple present tense
· Kalimat pasif
· Bahasa evaluatif, misalnya important, valuable, trustworthy, etc.
2. Contoh Teks
In all the discussion over the removal of lead from petrol (and the atmosphere) there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the difference between driving in the city and in the country. While I realize my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive, I feel that when you travel through the country, where you only see another car every five to ten minutes, the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. Those who want to penalize older, leaded petrol vehicles and their owners don’t seem to appreciate that in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and one’s own vehicle is the only way to get about. I feel that country people, who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol, should be treated differently to the people who live in the city.


Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 11:00 AM

e. Explanation (penjelasan)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To explain the process involved in the formation or workings of natural or socio-cultural phenomena (menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam, dunia ilmiah, sosial-budaya, atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan).

b. Struktur Teks (generic structure):

· A general statement to position the reader (pernyataan umum untuk memposisikan pembaca).

· A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs (penjelasan yang berurutan tentang mengapa dan bagaimana sesuatu itu terjadi).

· Closing (penutup).

  1. Ciri Kebahasaan (languistic features):


· General and abstract nouns, misalnya word chopping, earthquakes

· Action verbs

· Simple present tense

· Passive voice

· Conjunctions of time and cause

· Noun phrase, example the large cloud

· Abstract nouns, example the temperature

· Adverbial phrases

· Complex sentences

· Bahasa teknis

· Kalimat pasif

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

Making Paper from Woodchips

General statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. Process explanation (sequenced) Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper.


Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 10:59 AM

d. Discussion (pembahasan)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To present at least two points of views about an issue (mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang, sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi.

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):

· Issue: Statement (pernyataan) dan preview

· Arguments for and against or statement of differing points of view (Pendapat yang mendukung dan pendapat yang menolak atau pernyataan dari sudut pandang yang berbeda). Terdiri atas: point (gagasan pokok) dan elaboration (uraian). Bisa terdiri atas lebih dari satu point dan elaboration.

· Conclusion or recommendation (kesimpulan atau rekomendasi)

  1. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features):


· General nouns untuk menyatakan kategori, misalnya uniforms, alcohol, etc.

· Relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan, misalnya smoking is harmful, etc.

· Thinking verbs untuk mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis, misalnya feel, believe, hope, etc.

· Additives, contrastives dan causal connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen, misalnya similarly, on the hand, however, etc.

· Detailed noun groups untuk memberikan informasi secara padu, misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens, etc.

· Modalities, seperti perhaps, must, should, should have been, could be, etc.

· Adverbials of maner, misalnya deliberately, hopefully, etc.

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:

I have been wondering if homework is necessary. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. But, many times, doing homework is not a great idea. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family.


Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 10:56 AM

c. Description (deskripsi)

1. Ciri Umum:

a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose):

To describe a particular person, place, or thing (Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang, benda atau tempat tertentu).

b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):

· Identification: identifies phenomenon to be described (mengidentifikasi fenomena yang akan dideskripsikan).

· Description: describes parts, qualities, characteristics (mendeskripsikan bagian-bagian, kualitas, ciri-ciri subjek, perilaku umum, sifat-sifat).

c. Ciri Kebahasaan (linguistic features):

· Terfokus pada participant tertentu: example my house, my cat, the museum, etc.


· Simple present tense

· Detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, example It was a large open rowboat, a sweet young lady, etc.

· Berbagai macam adjectives, yang bersifat describing, numbering, classifying, example, two strong legs, sharp white fangs, etc.

· Relating verbs untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, example, My mum is realy cool, It has very thick fur, etc.

· Thinking verbs dan feeling verbs untuk mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis tentang subjek, example Police believe the suspect is armed, I think it is a clever animal, etc.

· Action verbs, example Our new puppy bites our shoes, etc.

· Abverbials untuk memberikan informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut, example fast, at the tree house, etc.

· Bahasa figurative, seperti simile, metafor, misalnya John is white as chalk, sat tight, etc.

2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:


Identification Macquarie University is one of the largest universities in Australia. This year, in 2004, it celebrates its 40th anniversary. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt, Sydney, where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. In 1964, Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe, but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe, Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor, a grass amphitheatre, and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles, native plants and eucalypts. Today, a railway station is under construction. In three years1 time, Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway, yet retaining its beautiful site.