LANGUAGE AND THE BRAIN

Posting by Ade Tuty Anggriany | 12:04 PM

1. Brain Structure and Functions



Fig. 1.1. Parts of Human Brain

Human brain consists of four major parts: modulla oblongata, pons varolli, cerebellum, cerebrum (cerebral cortex). The first three parts are associated with the physical functions, including breathing, heartbeat, transmission and coordination of movement, involuntary reflexes, digestion, emotional arousal, etc. While cerebrum (cerebral cortex) is one of the largest part of human brain, which is associated with the higher brain function such as thought and action.
The cerebrum (cerebral cortex) is divided into two hemispheres: right hemisphere and left hemisphere. These hemispheres are connected by one tissue, is called as corpus callosum. Each of this hemisphere consists of four lobes: frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe.



Fig. 1.2. Lobes of the Cerebrum (cerebral cortex)

Each of these lobe has its own function:
1. Frontal lobe, associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, emotions, and problem solving;
2. Parietal lobe, associated with orientation, recognition, and perception of stimuli;
3. Occipital lobe, associated with visual processing;
4. Temporal lobe, associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech.

2. Hemispheric Dominance & Lateralization

In the human brain, there is a cross-over control in which the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body including the right hand, the right arm, the right side of the face, while the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body.
However, those who have suffered a stroke, although they can not move one sides of their body or even both sides of their body, but their sight and hearing organs will not be affected because there is a criss-cross control when it comes to the organs of sight and hearing.
Even though the hemispheres of the brain divide the labors of the body, they do not do so evenly. It can be said that the body can not serve two masters; it means one side must take charge. For instance, for right-handers, who predominate to use their right organs in doing anything, and vice versa for left-handers. It means that one of their hemispheres whether the left or right hemisphere dominates another hemisphere, it is called hemispheric dominance.

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